Tagarchief: squid

Squid with active directory authentication on Centos 6.0

In this post, I'll be writing down all steps required to build a Squid proxy server on a clean "minimal" installation of CentOS 6.0

Step 1. Network configuration

First, install system-config-network or manually configure the network. I prefer system-config-network for easy configurations and vim for more complex configurations.
yum -y install system-config-network-tui

Step 2. Install some tools for convenience

yum -y install vim-minimal vim-enhanced openssh-clients mc telnet policycoreutils policycoreutils-python bind-utils

Step 3. Install ntp and synchronize clocks

If one of the clocks it out of sync, NTLM authentication will not work. Therefore, we synchronize the clocks. Using pool.ntp.org as a source would be good, but if the AD server isn't synchronized with that source, we'd have the same problem. So I'm synchonizing the proxy to the AD server (Win2003SBS actually) instead:

rpm -q ntp || yum -y install ntp
sed -i "s/^server /#server /g" /etc/ntp.conf
echo "server AD-SERVERNAME" >> /etc/ntp.conf
ntpdate AD-SERVERNAME #synchronize right now
service ntpd start #and keep in sync
chkconfig ntpd on

Step 4. Install squid and other required software

yum -y install krb5-workstation samba-common samba-winbind authconfig squid
chkconfig squid on

Step 5. Connect to active directory

Please note that MYCOMPANY.local and mycompany.local may be different domains due to the upper/lowercase.

ADSERVER=sbs.MYCOMPANY.local
DOMAIN=MYCOMPANY.local
WORKGROUP=MYCOMPANY
authconfig --enableshadow --enablemd5 --passalgo=md5 --krb5kdc=$ADSERVER \
--krb5realm=$DOMAIN --smbservers=$ADSERVER --smbworkgroup=$WORKGROUP \
--enablewinbind --enablewinbindauth --smbsecurity=ads --smbrealm=$DOMAIN \
--smbidmapuid="16777216-33554431" --smbidmapgid="16777216-33554431" --winbindseparator="+" \
--winbindtemplateshell="/bin/false" --enablewinbindusedefaultdomain --disablewinbindoffline \
--winbindjoin=Administrator --disablewins --disablecache --enablelocauthorize --updateall
service winbind restart
chkconfig winbind on

Give squid permissions to use winbind info:
usermod -G wbpriv squid

Now check your winbind connection using the following commands:

wbinfo -u
wbinfo -g

Step 6. Firewall

iptables -I INPUT -m tcp -p tcp --dport 3128 -j ACCEPT
/sbin/service iptables save

Step 7. Configure squid

I commented out this line from /etc/squid/squid.conf:
http_access allow localnet
That line would have allowed users from 10.0.0.0/8+172.16.0.0/12+192.168.0.0/16 and others to use the proxy without authentication. Then I added the following right below that line:

acl whitelist dstdom_regex -i "/etc/squid/whitelist"
http_access allow whitelist
auth_param ntlm program /usr/bin/ntlm_auth --helper-protocol=squid-2.5-ntlmssp
auth_param ntlm children 5
auth_param ntlm keep_alive on
acl our_networks src 192.168.0.0/16
acl ntlm proxy_auth REQUIRED
http_access allow our_networks ntlm
authenticate_ip_ttl 900 seconds

This will allow all valid, logged in users to surf the web. You could also limit which users can surf by adding --require-membership-of=ADGROUPNAME to the ntlm_auth command

The first two lines of above configuration point to a file /etc/squid/whitelist. This file contains domains that should never be denied. My whitelist file contains:

\.trendmicro\.com
^trendmicro\.com
\.microsoft\.com
^microsoft\.com

This means that anything at *.microsoft.com and microsoft.com (without subdomain) as well as *.trendmicro.com as trendmicro.com (my virusscanner) is always allowed for any user. We wouldn't want to block important updates.

Start Squid using /sbin/service squid restart and the proxy is ready.

Step 8. Optional: IPv6 issues

I've been experimenting with IPv6 for a while now, but I don't have IPv6 available on all systems. That caused me some trouble with the next step. I had to give preference to IPv4 above IPv6 by editting /etc/gai.conf:

label ::1/128       0
label ::/0          1
label 2002::/16     2
label ::/96         3
label ::ffff:0:0/96 4
label fec0::/10     5
label fc00::/7      6
precedence ::ffff:0:0/96  100
precedence ::1/128       50
precedence ::/0          40
precedence 2002::/16     30
precedence ::/96          20

Step 9. Optional: Some white- and blacklisting

We may not want to allow all sites to be visited. For instance, porn sites are often blocked in office situations. I've got a manual on blacklisting using SquidGuard as well.

© GeekLabInfo Squid with active directory authentication on Centos 6.0 is a post from GeekLab.info. You are free to copy materials from GeekLab.info, but you are required to link back to http://www.geeklab.info
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Squid active directory authentication on Centos 5.6

Step 1. Install ntp and synchronize clocks

We'll be using winbind, kerberos and ntlm to authenticate the user. This requires the clocks of the AD server and the proxy server to be synchronized.

rpm -qa ntp || yum -y install ntp
sed -i "s/^server /#server /g" /etc/ntp.conf
echo "server YOURSERVERNAME" >> /etc/ntp.conf
ntpdate YOURSERVERNAME   #synchronize right now
service ntpd start                #and keep in sync
chkconfig ntpd on       #after reboot as well

Step 2. Install required software

yum install krb5-workstation samba-common authconfig squid
chkconfig squid on

Step 3. Connect to active directory

Please note that MYCOMPANY.local and mycompany.local may be different domains due to the upper/lowercase.

ADSERVER=sbs.MYCOMPANY.local
DOMAIN=MYCOMPANY.local
WORKGROUP=MYCOMPANY
authconfig --enableshadow --enablemd5 --passalgo=md5 --krb5kdc=$ADSERVER \
--krb5realm=$DOMAIN --smbservers=$ADSERVER --smbworkgroup=$WORKGROUP \
--enablewinbind --enablewinbindauth --smbsecurity=ads --smbrealm=$DOMAIN \
--smbidmapuid="16777216-33554431" --smbidmapgid="16777216-33554431" --winbindseparator="+" \
--winbindtemplateshell="/bin/false" --enablewinbindusedefaultdomain --disablewinbindoffline \
--winbindjoin=Administrator --disablewins --disablecache --enablelocauthorize --updateall

I found some information saying that /var/cache/samba/winbindd_privileged should be chowned 750 to root:squid or that you should add user squid to group wbpriv. Also, squid.conf should not have cache_effective_group defined. However, this part was not relevant on my Centos 5.6. The reason could be that I installed 5.4, then upgraded, i'm not sure. Just leaving it as a note.

Now check your winbind connection using the following commands:
wbinfo -u
wbinfo -g

Step 4. Configure squid

auth_param ntlm program /usr/bin/ntlm_auth --helper-protocol=squid-2.5-ntlmssp 
auth_param ntlm children 5
auth_param ntlm keep_alive on
acl our_networks src 192.168.0.0/16
acl ntlm proxy_auth REQUIRED
http_access allow our_networks ntlm
authenticate_ip_ttl 900 seconds

This will allow all valid, logged in users to surf the web. You could also limit which users can surf by adding
--require-membership-of=ADGROUPNAME to the ntlm_auth command

Start Squid using /sbin/service squid restart and you're good to go.

You may want to check what else I'm writing on Squid. I'm planning to document a lot more in the next few weeks.

© GeekLabInfo Squid active directory authentication on Centos 5.6 is a post from GeekLab.info. You are free to copy materials from GeekLab.info, but you are required to link back to http://www.geeklab.info
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Transparent proxy with iptables and squid

Today, my dear wife asked me to help her with her facebook addiction. She wondered if I could block facebook, gmail, some news sites and more during her work hours. Sure, I can. And since she's running Linux as well, I could even do it on her own computer.

Step 1: Install squid

Squid is a FLOSS proxy server that runs on Linux and several other sytems. It's capable of filtering and behaving transparently. Just what we need.

yum -y install squid

Step 2: Configure squid

acl manager proto cache_object
acl localhost src 127.0.0.1/32 ::1
acl to_localhost dst 127.0.0.0/8 0.0.0.0/32 ::1

# Example rule allowing access from your local networks.
# Adapt to list your (internal) IP networks from where browsing
# should be allowed
acl localnet src 10.0.0.0/8 # RFC1918 possible internal network
acl localnet src 172.16.0.0/12 # RFC1918 possible internal network
acl localnet src 192.168.0.0/16 # RFC1918 possible internal network
acl localnet src fc00::/7 # RFC 4193 local private network range
acl localnet src fe80::/10 # RFC 4291 link-local (directly plugged) machines

acl SSL_ports port 443
acl Safe_ports port 80 # http
acl Safe_ports port 21 # ftp
acl Safe_ports port 443 # https
acl Safe_ports port 70 # gopher
acl Safe_ports port 210 # wais
acl Safe_ports port 1025-65535 # unregistered ports
acl Safe_ports port 280 # http-mgmt
acl Safe_ports port 488 # gss-http
acl Safe_ports port 591 # filemaker
acl Safe_ports port 777 # multiling http
acl CONNECT method CONNECT

# Here I define the times and what file contains the rules
acl playtime1 time SMTWHFA 8:30-9:30
acl playtime22 time SMTWHFA 16:00-17:00
acl addiction url_regex -i "/etc/squid/addiction"

# Only allow cachemgr access from localhost
http_access allow manager localhost
http_access deny manager

# Deny requests to certain unsafe ports
http_access deny !Safe_ports

# Deny CONNECT to other than secure SSL ports
http_access deny CONNECT !SSL_ports

# We strongly recommend the following be uncommented to protect innocent
# web applications running on the proxy server who think the only
# one who can access services on "localhost" is a local user
#http_access deny to_localhost

#
# INSERT YOUR OWN RULE(S) HERE TO ALLOW ACCESS FROM YOUR CLIENTS
#

# The next few lines actually do the work
http_access allow playtime1 addiction
http_access allow playtime2 addiction
http_access deny addiction
# If this ACL is triggered, show the user the WORKONLY error message.
deny_info WORKONLY addiction

# Example rule allowing access from your local networks.
# Adapt localnet in the ACL section to list your (internal) IP networks
# from where browsing should be allowed
http_access allow localnet
http_access allow localhost

# And finally deny all other access to this proxy
http_access deny all

# Squid normally listens to port 3128
# I added the word "transparent", so squid behaves a little different:
# it makes itself transparent. NOTE TO SELF: This is the line you're
looking for. Used to be httpd_accel_uses_host_header in squid 2

http_port 3128 transparent

# We recommend you to use at least the following line.
hierarchy_stoplist cgi-bin ?

# Uncomment and adjust the following to add a disk cache directory.
#cache_dir ufs /var/spool/squid 100 16 256

# Leave coredumps in the first cache dir
coredump_dir /var/spool/squid

# Add any of your own refresh_pattern entries above these.
refresh_pattern ^ftp: 1440 20% 10080
refresh_pattern ^gopher: 1440 0% 1440
refresh_pattern -i (/cgi-bin/|\?) 0 0% 0
refresh_pattern . 0 20% 4320

# Don't show squid to the outside world
forwarded_for delete

# I don't need to log what she's doing
access_log none
# Nor do i need icap logs
icap_log none
# And i don't want to know what is stored in cache
cache_store_log none
# To not break web apps, I don't want caching either
cache deny all

Step 3: Define blocked sites

Type a list of blocked websites in /etc/squid/addiction. You can use complete urls, domains or even just words. Ie. "facebook" blocks http://www.facebook.com, but also http://wikipedia.org/wiki/facebook

Step 4: Leave a message

In the configuration, I put: deny_info WORKONLY addiction. This means that I can leave the user a message in /usr/share/squid/errors/templates/WORKONLY and /usr/share/squid/errors/en/WORKONLY. Since it's my wife's PC, I decided to leave her a sweet message :-D

Step 5: Route network traffic

I could configure her Firefox to use the proxy. But then she'd use Google Chrome or Konqueror to surf the web. And she could turn the proxy off. So I need to catch all http-traffic that did not pass squid. I used iptables:

#Allow user 'root' to surf the web, for yum update etc.
iptables -t nat -A OUTPUT -m tcp -p tcp --dport 80 -m owner --uid-owner root -j RETURN
# Allow user 'squid' to pass on http requests
iptables -t nat -A OUTPUT -m tcp -p tcp --dport 80 -m owner --uid-owner squid -j RETURN
# Redirect all other traffic to the proxy.
iptables -t nat -A OUTPUT -m tcp -p tcp --dport 80 -j REDIRECT --to-ports 3128
© GeekLabInfo Transparent proxy with iptables and squid is a post from GeekLab.info. You are free to copy materials from GeekLab.info, but you are required to link back to http://www.geeklab.info
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